Te Kete Ipurangi Navigation:

Te Kete Ipurangi

Te Kete Ipurangi user options:

Digital Technologies and the national curriculum – what’s it all about?

Learning about and with digital technologies will contribute to developing an informed digital society.

Digital Technologies in the national curriculum

In The New Zealand Curriculum, digital technologies is part of the Technology learning area.

In Te Marautanga o Aotearoa, digital technologies is a new whenu (strand) within the Hangarau Wāhanga Ako.

“All young people from years one to 10 will take part in digital technologies learning. Students choosing digital technologies pathways for NCEA will develop the more specialised skills that industry partners say are in high demand, through new achievement standards being developed for NCEA Levels 1, 2 and 3.”

Nikki Kaye, June 2017

Digital technologies curriculum content live

The new digital technologies curriculum content is online for all state and state-integrated schools and kura to use in their teaching and learning programmes from the beginning of the 2018 school year. All schools and kura will be required to implement the new curriculum content from 2020.

  • Hangarau Matihiko  – The new curriculum content, which is part of Te Marautanga o Aotearoa.
  • Digital technology professional supports  – To complement the release of the new curriculum content, the Ministry have commissioned a range of resources and supports for teachers and kaiako to build their digital confidence and capability and to support them to introduce the new curriculum content into their teaching and learning programmes. These supports and resources are available over 2018-20.

Digital Technologies as part of the Technology learning area

Digital Technologies is learning about technology. It involves learning to be a creator in the digital world, not just learning to use systems. 

How the Technology learning area has changed


The reorganised Technology learning area still has the three strands: technological practice, technological knowledge, and nature of technology. Below this are five technological areas:

  1. Designing and developing materials outcomes
  2. Designing and developing processed outcomes
  3. Design and visual communication
  4. Computational thinking for digital technologies
  5. Designing and developing digital outcomes

The three strands provide the organising structure for the five technological areas:

  • achievement objectives  – Designing and developing materials outcomes, Designing and developing processed outcomes, Design and visual communication 
  • progress outcomes  – Computational thinking for digital technologies, Designing and developing digital outcomes.

The new content covers two key areas, computational thinking and designing and developing digital outcomes. It has been designed to be flexible, so it can respond to new developments and technologies as they emerge.

Computational thinking is about understanding the computer science principles that underlie all digital technologies, and learning how to develop instructions, such as programming, to control these technologies.”

Designing and developing digital outcomes is about understanding that digital systems and applications are created for humans by humans, and developing knowledge and skills in using different digital technologies to create digital content across a range of digital media. This part of the curriculum also includes learning about the electronic components and techniques used to design digital devices."

Nikki Kaye, June 2017

"Learning in digital technologies links to learning across all learning areas and wāhanga ako."

Education Gazette, 2016

More information »

Implementation process

The "big ideas" and key conceptual ideas of digital technologies were developed and tested with a group of students, teachers, and the Digital Technologies Hangarau Matihiko Curriculum Reference Group during 2016.

In 2017 the design and development process was informed by, and run alongside, a much more extensive trial and consultation period with schools, students, teachers and with industry stakeholders. The group mapped the significant learning "signposts", which describe a student’s increasing understanding and use of digital technologies knowledge and skills; develop and test rich tasks for and with students; and engage and test their ideas with students, teachers and industry stakeholders throughout the design process. A Māori-medium hangarau matihiko working group is running parallel to the work of the English medium group.


Digital Technologies will be part of The New Zealand Curriculum, beginning at Year 1 from 2018.

  • Term one 2018, Digital Technologies | Hangarau Matihiko curriculum will be introduced to all schools.
  • Professional learning development (PLD) supports will be available from term one, 2018.
  • Term 1 2020, it will expected that schools will be teaching the Digital Technologies | Hangarau Matihiko curriculum.
Digital Technologies Curriculum timeline for implementation

Provision of support

The Ministry of Education is providing for, and supporting changes to schools' infrastructure, practices, and pedagogy to improve our education system.

The range of initiatives for Digital Technologies in education will ensure:

  • all New Zealand schools are equipped with state-of-the-art infrastructure
  • teachers get the support and resources they need to be digitally fluent
  • every student benefits from the advantages of digital technologies for learning.

Ministry of Education

Consultation feedback reports

Ministry of Education reports from the consultation phase of the DT & HM curriculum content development.

  1. Martin Jenkins consultation report   – summarises and collates feedback received from the public consultation.
  2. Curriculum Advisory Group (CAG) report   – the CAG was established as an independent panel of experts commissioned to advise the Ministry on the draft DT & HM curriculum content and provide recommendations on feedback received during consultation as collated in the Martin Jenkins consultation process report.
  3. Summary report    – outlines:
    • the process for developing and consulting on the draft curriculum content
    • the changes noted, and responded to, on the DT & HM curriculum content after considering submissions received
    • the next steps for the sector as the new curriculum content is introduced into schools and kura.
More information »

Getting prepared for teaching Digital Technologies

The Digital Readiness Programme  introduces teachers and principals to the new digital technologies and hangarau matihiko curriculum content and teaching strategies.

It is designed to prepare all teachers and kaiako to teach the new curriculum content.

Find out more about the online programme and self-review tool coming during Term 2, 2018. The programme will be available for three years.

1. Understanding computational thinking

Computational thinking is about looking at a problem in a way that a computer can help us to solve it. It is not thinking about computers or like computers (CAS Barefoot ).

"Computational thinking enables a student to express problems, and formulate solutions in a way that means a computer (an information processing agent) can be used to solve them.

Students develop computational and algorithmic thinking skills, and an understanding of the computer science principles that underlie all digital technologies. They become aware of what is, and is not, possible with computing, so they are able to make judgements and informed decisions as citizens of the digital world. Students learn core programming concepts and how to take advantage of the capabilities of computers, so that they can become creators of digital technologies, not just users. They will develop an understanding of how computer data is stored, how all the information within a computer system is presented using digits, and the impact that different data representations have on the nature and use of this information."

Draft for consultation: Digital Technologies | Hangarau Matihiko

The thinking undertaken before starting work on a computer is computational thinking.

CAS Barefoot

Computational thinking is a two-step process:

  1. Identify the steps needed to solve a problem.
  2. Use your technical skills to get the computer "working" on the problem.

For example, if you’re going to make a video animation, you need to:

  1. start by planning the storyboard
  2. then, use computer hardware and software to help you get the work done.

Computational thinking is a problem solving process that includes a number of characteristics and dispositions. It is essential to the development of computer applications, but it can also be used to support problem solving across the curriculum.

Operational definition of computational thinking for K-12 education

Computational thinking is a problem-solving process that includes (but is not limited to) the following characteristics:

  • formulating problems in a way that enables us to use a computer and other tools to help solve them
  • logically organising and analysing data
  • representing data through abstractions such as models and simulations
  • automating solutions through algorithmic thinking (a series of ordered steps)
  • identifying, analysing, and implementing possible solutions with the goal of achieving the most efficient and effective combination of steps and resources
  • generalising and transferring this problem solving process to a wide variety of problems.

These skills are supported and enhanced by a number of dispositions or attitudes that are essential dimensions of CT. These dispositions or attitudes include:

  • confidence in dealing with complexity
  • persistence in working with difficult problems
  • tolerance for ambiguity
  • the ability to deal with open ended problems
  • the ability to communicate and work with others to achieve a common goal or solution.


More information »
  • Computational thinking for educators  – A resource for teachers, with a free online course to help teachers integrate computational thinking into their classroom curriculum.
  • Computational thinking with Scratch  – Defining, assessing, and supporting computational thinking.
  • Computational thinking  – A clear explanation of computational thinking which expands on the concepts and approaches. Registration for this site is free, and provides access to useful classroom resources.
Structure of digital technologies
Structure of digital technologies

Image source: Tim Bell (University of Canterbury)


The first digital computers developed in the 1940s, and the latest smartwatches, are all based on this structure.

  • Digital devices run applications (also referred to as programs, software, or apps).
  • Applications work with data, which might be as simple as the number of steps taken on a fitness tracker, or as complex as every transaction in a large organisation.
  • An algorithm is a process that acts on the data. For example, a fitness tracker stores data about number of steps taken, and one algorithm used is to add one to the number of steps whenever a step is detected; another algorithm might make decisions about how you are reaching your fitness goal.
  • program is the implementation of an algorithm to process data; there are many ways to program (code) an algorithm, but a computer needs a program to be able to carry out the intention of the algorithm.
  • The main part of the system is the human, who gets information in and out of the system using an interface (which might involve buttons, images, sound, vibration, and more).
  • Devices and infrastructure – devices are connected to each other through networks (which could be as simple as a USB connection, or as complex as the internet).

Understanding this structure means:

  • having an understanding of what a digital system is 
  • recognising the opportunities and limitations provided by a digital system
  • students have the basis for understanding future digital systems.

Tim Bell (University of Canterbury)

2. Cross-curricular opportunities for integrating digital technologies

This video demonstrates an approach to integrating digital technologies across the curriculum. This is a demonstration of an activity from the Computer Science Unplugged collection of games and activities. It demonstrate Computer Science without using computers. For more information, see the activity called "Treasure Hunt – Finite-State Automata" at http://csunplugged.org .

More information »
  • Computational thinking for school students and teachers – what's the big idea?  – A talk given by Tim Bell (University of Canterbury) as part of an international on-line conference in 2016. It includes demonstrations with students.
  • Computer science unplugged  – A collection of free teaching material that teaches Computer Science through engaging games and puzzles that use cards, string, crayons, and lots of running around. The resources available to teachers include unit plans, lesson plans, teaching videos, curriculum integration activities, and programming exercises to plug in the Computer Science concepts they have just learnt unplugged.

3. Digital fluency and digital technologies – What is their relationship?

Digital fluency is about using a digital system effectively. It means understanding how to use digital technologies, deciding when to use specific digital technologies to achieve a desired outcome, and being able to explain why the technologies selected will provide their desired outcome.

Digital technologies involves computational thinking – learning to be a creator in the digital world, not just learning to use systems. Digital Technologies is not about learning with technology (e-learning), it's learning about technology

Both are important, but if we teach students only to use digital devices, they will be consumers limited to making do with whatever the makers of digital technologies produce, and as a country we will be buying in technology rather than creating it and selling it to others.
Tim Bell (University of Canterbury)

More information »
  • Towards Digital Fluency  – The Ministry of Education outline the planned changes, including those for 21st Century Teaching and learning in Towards Digital Fluency. This includes a complete review of the position and content of digital technologies in the curriculum, and has led to the introduction of Digital Technologies as a new component of the Technology learning area.
  • Digital fluency  – Information and school stories to support teachers plan for building digital fluency.

NZ Curriculum information

NZ Curriculum online | Technology

The technology learning area structure, achievement objectives, and progress outcomes.

Technology in the NZC

Digital technologies exemplars illustrating teaching and learning for digital technologies will be published on 18 December 2017.

Strengthening digital technologies | hangarau matihiko

A range of resources, case studies, and innovative ideas are now being developed for you to access and use.

Digital Technologies  

Achievement objectives, indicators, and teacher guidance for Levels 6-8 on Technology Online.

Teaching resources

Digital technologies – NZ Curriculum

This site contains resources to support the proposed Digital Technologies  strand in the Technology Curriculum. This site has been developed by the Digital Fluencies team of the Institute of Professional Learning at the University of Waikato and Independent Facilitators to provide supporting resources for schools.

Computer Science Field Guide

The Computer Science Field Guide (CSFG) is an online resource for teaching Computer Science to students. It is aimed directly at students. The project is open source and available on GitHub . If you are a teacher (or involved in education), you can join the CSFG teachers group to receive updates and access the teacher's version of the guide.

Computing at school

An English website, which supports primary educators with the confidence, knowledge, skills, and resources to teach computer science. It includes free lesson plans and activities, designed to help teachers gain confidence in bringing computer science to life in the classroom. Teachers from any country can register and access the resources.

CS Unplugged – Computer science without a computer

A collection of free learning activities that teach Computer Science through games and puzzles that use cards, string, crayons, and lots of running around. Suitable for all ages. The material is available free of charge, and is shared under a Creative Commons BY-NC-SA licence .

Computational thinking for all

ISTE's website provides and explanation of computational thinking and links to their Computational Thinking Toolkit.

Readings and information

NZTech advance education technology summit: Leading for 21st century learning

This NZTech briefing paper (published August 2016) provides insights from the NZTech Advance Education Technology Summit, including key observations from the Leaders Forum discussions about achieving digital fluency.

Computational thinking for school students and teachers – what's the big idea?

A talk given by Tim Bell (University of Canterbury) as part of an international on-line conference in 2016. It includes demonstrations with students.

Teacher support and discussions

The New Zealand Association for Computing, Digital and Information Technology Teachers

The aim of the association is to create a community of teachers to share resources, communicate, and speak with one voice to get Technology recognised and supported. They are now welcoming primary school teachers, and offer great support and sharing.

Digital Technologies: Ideas, implementation, inspiration for the new curriculum

A group in the Virtual Learning Network (VLN) to explore the new Digital Technologies strand in the Technologies curriculum as it unfolds. Join the group to share your thoughts, ideas, experiences, and resources.

Christchurch computer science for high schools event

Website for the annual free professional development week for high school teachers, held at the University of Canterbury in 2016. The event is a collection of workshops focused on preparing New Zealand educators for teaching the computer science and programming achievement standards for NCEA.

Christchurch computer science for primary schools workshops, at the University of Canterbury

Workshops are focused on preparing primary school teachers to integrate Computer Science into their classroom programmes.

Computational thinking for educators

A free online course for teachers to support understanding of computational thinking. It provides practical examples of how to integrate computational thinking into your classroom programme.

Ministry of Education information

Digital Technologies and Hangarau Matihiko learning

Information about the curriculum and supports provided to schools and kura to assist with implementation.

Strengthening Digital Technologies Hangarau Matihiko in the curriculum

Information about the consultation process to develop the curriculum.

e-Learning community discussions

Keep informed

Subscribe to the newsletter.