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Research and readings

This section provides links to up-to-date research, which supports the development of e-learning capability.

Read e-learning research reports   from the Ministry of Education.

Beyond the classroomLeadership l Teaching l Professional learning l Technologies l Ministry initiatives  |Māori medium

Beyond the classroom

Educationally powerful connections with parents and whānau (November 2015)
The Education Review Office (ERO) evaluated how well 256 schools worked with parents and whānau to respond to students at risk of underachievement. Of particular interest is the Focus on the use of technology  in the Findings section, which gives examples of schools had working with parents and whānau to accelerate and support progress and improve achievement using technologies.
Author: ERO
Published: November, 2015 

Educationally powerful connections summary
A 2-page PDF summary of the Educationally powerful connections with parents and whānau report. This includes key findings, quotes from students, parents, teachers, and leaders, and an inquiry framework that teachers and leaders may find useful when thinking about how to improve learning partnerships with the parents and whānau of students who are not achieving.
Published: 2015 

Education for Māori: Relationships between schools and whānau
This report brings together information about relationships between families and schools. It gives examples of practices that build effective relationships and highlights the importantance for Māori to know who the people behind the school gate are, as well as what those people do. Whānau, primary, and secondary schools were surveyed to find out what they thought about their relationships.
Author: Report for the controller and auditor-general Tumuaki o te Mana Aratoke
Published: 2015

Partners in learning: Schools’ engagement with parents, families, and communities in New Zealand
The Education Review Office (ERO) conducted an external evaluation in over two hundred New Zealand schools to find out more about the engagement between schools and the parents and whānau of their students. It expands on the six key factors critical to enhancing and strengthening this engagement: leadership, relationships, school culture, partnerships, community networks, and communication.
Authors: Mutch, C. and Collins, S. 
Published: 2012 


From literacy to fluency to citizenship: Digital citizenship in education
Netsafe presents a revised model of digital citizenship. Digital citizenship combines the confident, fluent use of:

  • skills and strategies to access technology to communicate, connect, collaborate, and create
  • attitudes, underpinned by values that support personal integrity and positive connection with others
  • understanding and knowledge of the digital environments and contexts in which they are working, and how they integrate on/offline spaces.

Author: NetSafe
Published: November 2016

Teaching excellence through professional learning and policy reform: Lessons from around the world
A comprehensive report prepared for the OECD based on data and comparative analysis from several recent OECD publications. The report covers:

  • what knowledge, skills, and character qualities successful teachers require
  • what policies can help teachers acquire knowledge and skills they need
  • what governments can do to implement education policies effectively
  • professional teachers and successful reforms

Author: Andreas Schleicher
Published: 2016

Raising student achievement through targeted actions
The national picture for targeted actions in primary and secondary schools is summarised in this report. It provides examples from the schools that were doing best in setting targets and taking actions that raised student achievement.
Author: ERO
Published: December 2015

What works best in education: The politics of collaborative expertise
The greatest influence on student progression in learning is having expert teachers and school leaders working together to maximise the effect of their teaching on all students in their school. School leaders have a major role in harnessing the expertise in their schools and to lead successful transformations. Support, time, and resources  need to be given for this to happen. In this paper, Hattie describes what a model of collaborative expertise should look like and how to make it a reality. He breaks it down into eight tasks.
Author: John Hattie
Published: 2015 

Professional inquiry report on professional collaborative inquiry and technology
This paper focuses on the question – how are schools supporting collaborative professional inquiry with technology? It provides a snapshot of four primary schools and looks at how technology supports the conditions for effective collaboration and inquiry into practice.
Author: Nick Rate
Published: October 2015

Evaluation of the Manaiakalani Digital Teaching Academy
Findings from the year one evaluation of a pilot initiative called the Manaiakalani Digital Teaching Academy (MDTA) are outlined in this report. The pilot was set up to help keep initial teacher education programmes up-to-date with 21st century changes in education.
Author: Rosemary Hipkins, Jenny Whatman, and Jo MacDonald (New Zealand Council for Eduactional Research)
Published: October 2015

Schooling redesigned: Towards innovative learning systems
What does redesigning schools and schooling through innovation mean in practice? How might it be brought about? These questions have inspired an international reflection on “Innovative Learning Environments” (ILE).
Author: OECD
Published: October 2015 

Extending innovative e-learning leadership
In this project the researchers worked with experienced principals to identify and analyse effective e-learning leadership strategies, and make these visible and accessible for other school leaders.
Authors: Dr Niki Davis, Dr Julie Mackey, and Carolyn Stuart
Published: September 2015

Students, computers, and learning: Managing the connection  
Based on results from PISA 2012, this report discusses differences in access to and use of ICT. The report examines the relationship among computer access in schools, computer use in classrooms, and performance in the PISA assessment. As the report makes clear, all students first need to be equipped with basic literacy and numeracy skills so that they can participate fully in the hyper-connected, digitised societies of the 21st century.
Author: PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris
Published: September 2015

Inclusive practices for students with special needs in schools
How well students with special education needs are included in New Zealand schools is examined in this report.
Authors: ERO
Published: March 2015

Future-focused learning in connected communities
The report focuses on transforming teaching and learning, enabled by technologies that are widespread in our society. It suggests ten strategic priorities for 21st century skills and digital competencies.
Authors: Associate Education Minister Nikki Kaye's 21st Century Learning Reference Group
Published: May 2014

Conditions for effective smart learning environments
Smart learning environments (SLEs) are defined in this paper as physical environments that are enriched with digital, context-aware and adaptive devices, to promote better and faster learning. This paper provides an analysis of how "human learning interfaces" are used to identify the conditions for the development of effective smart learning environments.
Author: Rob Koper
Published: 2014 

Primary and intermediate schools 2013
The main findings from the NZCER national survey of primary and intermediate schools, conducted in July and August 2013 are presented in this report. The views of principals, teachers, boards of trustees and parents are given. The report covers many aspects of school experience, including school resources, school interactions with government agencies, The New Zealand Curriculum in schools, National Standards, student wellbeing, and use of technology.
Authors: Cathy Wylie and Linda Bonne, NZCER
Published: 2014 

Supporting future-oriented learning and teaching – a New Zealand perspective
This research project draws together findings from new data and more than 10 years of research on current practice and futures-thinking in education. The report discusses some emerging principles for future learning, how these are currently expressed in New Zealand educational thinking and practice, and what they could look like in future practice.
Authors: Rachel Bolstad and Jane Gilbert, with Sue McDowall, Ally Bull, Sally Boyd, and Rosemary Hipkins (New Zealand Council for Educational Research)
Published: June 2012

e-Learning and implications for New Zealand schools: a literature review
A key finding was that an e-learning-rich environment may make peer and collaborative learning opportunities easier, and may lead to improved educational outcomes. This way of working also appears to suit many New Zealand students, including Māori. Texts authored between 2005 and 2010 across a range of countries were reviewed. 
Author: Noeline Wright
Published: July 2010

School leadership and student outcomes: Identifying what works and why best evidence synthesis
The big finding of the BES is that when school leaders promote and/or participate in effective teacher professional learning, this has twice the impact on student outcomes across a school than any other leadership activity. New Zealand principals spend less time on those activities that make the most difference than many of their international peers.
Authors: Viviane Robinson, Margie Hohepa, Claire Lloyd (The University of Auckland)
Published: November 2009

Leadership: An evolving vision and digital pedagogy
Principal Roz Mexted attended Leadership: An Evolving Vision course at Harvard University, Graduate School of Education. She reports on this intensive leadership course for experienced principals, and her following visit to three Queensland Academies focused on digital pedagogy, using web 2.0 technologies in all aspects of teaching and learning.
Author: Roz Mexted
Published: 2009

Leading change
How leadership was the key to fostering Māori education success in a small rural Northland school is examined in this article from the Education Gazette. The article outlines examples of the "clearly visible" correlation between culture and learner achievement. 
Published: March 2009

School leadership and student outcomes – Identifying what works and why
The leadership synthesis analyses national and international evidence on the impact of leadership on a wide range of student outcomes.
Author: Professor Viviane M. J. Robinson
Published: October 2007

Educational Leaders: Eight forces for leaders of change
The process of leading change in schools is considered in relation to the eight forces. These are guidelines that provide ways to think about the process, and suggest topics for discussion and evaluation of the process. It would be useful to use at the beginning of a change phase within a school, and to share with staff so that they come to understand the various stages in the process of implementing change in a school.
Authors: Michael Fullan, Claudia Cuttress, and Ann Kilcher
Published: 2005

Successful strategies for building teamwork amongst teaching staff and administrators, to create a collaborative culture are outlined in the Canadian article. The development of a collaborative and shared leadership that is transparent to all staff and students is a key aspect.
Authors: Deborah Patterson and Carol Rolheiser
Published: 2004

Outlines a successful strategic planning process used in schools to implement a school wide vision. The authors highlight that the process must be owned by the staff not just the principal. 
Authors: Jan Hill, Kay Hawk and Kerry Taylor from the Institute for Professional Development and Education Research
Published: April 2001


A research inquiry investigating how some forward thinking secondary schools are maintaining future focused and innovate practice despite their traditional settings. 
Author: Rowan Taigel
Published: 2016

Educators who believe: Understanding the enthusiasm of teachers who use digital technologies in the classroom
This study used qualitative methods to explore why some teachers embrace the use of digital game-play (DGP) in the classroom. A summary of the research is on the Digital Education Research Network (DERN) blogpost – Teachers and digital games in the classroom .
Authors: C. Stieler-Hunt and C.M. Jones
Published: 2015 

Strengthening teacher's sense of effectiveness
This article is based on the OECD report: TALIS 2013 Results: An International Perspective on Teaching and Learning. It examines the importance and benefits of collaborative practice, reviews different ways of collaborating – including team teaching – and policies and practices that support collaborative practice.
Author: Andreas Schleicher
Published: 2015 

Preparing for a renaissance in assessment
The authors argue that current assessment methods are no longer working, and new technologies will transform assessment and testing in education. It itemises steps in a "Framework for Action" that the authors suggest should be taken for policymakers, schools, school-system leaders, and other key players to prepare for the assessment renaissance.

e-Learning in science

A series of four research reports focusing on working with a group of schools to develop a best-practice, sustainable model for embedding e-learning in science education. One of the aims was to identify factors that enhance or constrain the incorporation of effective e-learning in science education.

Authors: NZCER researchers

Digital readers at age 15: An overview of the PISA 2009 electronic reading assessment
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an international study that assesses how well countries are preparing their 15-year-old students to meet real-life opportunities and challenges. In 2009, the main PISA study offered countries the option of assessing some of the participating students in reading using a computer based assessment – the Electronic Reading Assessment (ERA). The average (mean) digital reading literacy score for New Zealand 15-year-olds was significantly higher than the print reading literacy score. Compared with other high-performing countries or economies participating in the ERA, New Zealand had a relatively large proportion of students who demonstrated very advanced digital reading skills as well as a relatively high proportion of students who demonstrated poor skills.
Author: Sarah Kirkham
Published: June 2011

PISA 2009 results: Students on line: Digital technologies and performance (volume VI)
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an international study. Students from 19 countries were tested on their ability to navigate and evaluate information on line. Key curriculum areas focused on in the report are reading, mathematics, and science. Findings show that, in every participating country, girls outperform boys in reading skills, boys outperform girls in mathematics, and in science gender differences tend to be small. Countries of similar prosperity can produce very different educational results. 
Author: published on the responsibility of the secretary-general of the OECD
Published: June 2011 

Large-scale e-portfolio implementations – Introducing the epi research study
This article can be downloaded from the JISC website. It is one of the outputs of the e-Portfolio Implementations Study. The article describes the investigation into established successful use of e-portfolios in 18 schools from the UK, Australia, and New Zealand and the development of a resource to assist schools with implementing the use of e-portfolios. Three broad themes, in the form of questions, structure the guidance the study has developed about e-portfolio implementation. These questions are: 

  • Why should we use e-portfolios now? (the drivers theme) 
  • How do we decide upon which e-portfolio tool to use? (the tools theme) 
  • What does good implementation look like? (the implementation process theme)

Authors: Gordon Joyes and Angela Smallwood
Published: August 2011

This report looks in detail at the learning practices in nine secondary schools in which ICT for learning is well embedded. The study reports that ICT creates the opportunity for a wide variety of learning practices and makes new forms of classroom practice possible. The key changes include:

  • the opportunity to share rich images, video and plans
  • independent research is extended by the availability of internet search opportunities
  • construction of content and knowledge is made possible by ready-to-hand ICT-based tools
  • the reconfiguration of space allowing mobility, flexible working and activity management
  • new ways in which class activities can be triggered, orchestrated and monitored
  • new experiences associated with the virtualisation of established and routine practices – such as using multiple documents in parallel or manipulating spatial representations.

Authors: Charles Crook, Colin Harrison, Lee Farrington-Flint, Carmen Tomás, Jean Underwood
Published: 2010

Literacy teaching and learning in e-learning contexts
Findings of a research project on literacy teaching and learning in e-learning contexts carried out by CORE Education and the New Zealand Council for Educational Research (NZCER) for the Ministry of Education in 2009.
Author: Sue McDowell
Published: June 2010

Assessment for learning and e-portfolios
An exploration of what teachers can do to maximise the formative learning benefits of online e-portfolios.
Author: Nick Rate
Published: 2008

Creating digital age learners through school ICT projects: What can the Tech Angels project teach us?
This article surveys recent work on school ICT projects. It looks at the ideas that are informing this work and surveys some of the strategies being used in the drive to turn schools into "ICT-rich learning environments". In order to illustrate how these ideas play out in "real-world" situations, the article also profiles one New Zealand school-based ICT initiative as a case study—the Tech Angels project at Wellington Girls’ College, focussing in particular on how this school’s experiences can help other schools considering setting up similar programmes.
Authors: Rachel Bolstad and Jane Gilbert
Published: 2006

Educating the net generation
An EDUCAUSE e-Book. This collection explores the Net Gen and the implications for institutions in areas such as teaching, service, learning space design, faculty development, and curriculum. Contributions by educators and students are included.
Editors: Diana G. Oblinger and James L. Oblinger
Published: 2005 

An article describing the effective and innovative integration of ICTs into the classroom.
Author:Tessa Gray
Published: 2004

This white paper discusses the benefits and versatility of e-portfolios.
Author: Bob Banks
Published: December 2004

Professional learning

Browse all BES cases
A complete list of all 32 cases from across the best evidence synthesis (BES) publications on Education Counts. The best evidence syntheses bring together research evidence about ‘what works’ for diverse (all) learners in education.

Inquiry into 21st century learning environments and digital literacy
The education sector is changing significantly as result of new technologies and access to the Internet. This report contains 48 recommendations and concludes significant change is required across government if learners and teachers are to take full advantage of the digital learning resources available to them.
Author: Education and Science Committee, Fiftieth Parliament (Nikki Kaye, Chairperson)
Published: 19 December 2012

There is, a growing body of evidence to support the view that digital technologies have the potential to improve student outcomes and to enrich, if not transform, the learning experience of children. This report makes links to research demonstrating the increasing evidence of the positive impact of digital technologies in areas such as motivation, engagement, efficacy, and interaction.
Author: Ministry of Education
Published: July 2012

Outcomes for teaches and students in the ICT PD School Clusters Programme 2006-2008: A national overview
This report focuses on the effectiveness of the 2006-2008 Information and Communication Technologies Professional Development (ICT PD) School Clusters programmes and supplements previous evaluations of the first six ICT PD programmes. It is the last report of an ongoing evaluation of the ICT PD teacher professional development initiative, which has been implemented in New Zealand since 1999.
Authors: Selver Sahin and Vince Ham
Published: May 2010

Strategies to promote the development of e-competencies in the next generation of professionals: European and international trends
This study analyses the effectiveness of policies, strategies, and programmes that promote the acquisition of e-literacies, focusing in particular on the younger generation. Based on the benchmarking of different studies about the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on students’ learning, this work proposes a re-definition of the term "e-competencies".  A set of best practices for the development of the future e-competent labour force is identified.
Author: Juan Cristobal Cobo Romani
Published: November 2009

Outcomes for teachers and students in the ICT PD School Clusters Programme 2005-2007: A national overview
This report focuses on the effectiveness of the 2005-2007 Information and Communication Technologies Professional Development (ICT PD) School Clusters programmes and supplements previous evaluations of the first five ICT PD programmes. It is part of an ongoing evaluation of the ICT PD teacher professional development initiative, which has been implemented in New Zealand since 1999.
Author: Vince Ham
Published: July 2009

This paper briefly outlines the importance of professional learning in the secondary school context, reviews relevant research on professional learning groups, and then outlines the experiences of two schools that have introduced such groups.
Author: Roger Baldwin
Published: 2008

Key elements for a Māori e-learning framework
This paper outlines some of the key elements for a Māori e-learning and e-teaching framework from the personal experiences of a Māori lecturer and e-educator. The concepts for discussion include manaakitanga (caring), te taha wairua (spiritual well-being), and the need to establish and maintain online pastoral care of all students.
Author: Sheryl Lee Ferguson
Published: 2008

Information and Communication Technologies Professional Development (ICTPD) School Clusters Programme
This page on the Education Counts website provides links to evaluations of the Information and Communication Technologies Professional Development (ICTPD) teacher professional development initiative.

A summary of the findings of the 2005 research into knowledge and skills required for effective ICTPD facilitation.
Author: Jedd Bartlett
Published: 2006

Questions and answers: A conversation with Thomas R. Guskey
Gusky describes his five-level model for evaluating professional development.
Authors: H. Kreider and S. Bouffard
Published: 2006  

e-Fellowship research project on the study of the facilitator’s role and others in creating sustainability of the ICTPD School Cluster Professional Development model in New Zealand.
Author: Mel Rodden
Published: 2004

What makes for effective teacher professional development in ICT?
Since 1999, the Ministry of Education has provided funding for clusters of schools to develop three year ICT professional development programmes for their teachers. This evaluation of the clusters between 1999 and 2001 focuses on:

  • assessing the ingredients for successful cluster models of ICT teacher professional development
  • the effects of the professional development on classroom teaching and student learning
  • wider school effects of the professional development such as planning and administration.

Authors: Vince Ham, with Alison Gilmore, Annelise Kachelhoffer, Donna Morrow, Peter Moeau and Derek Wenmoth.
Published: 2002


Ngā hangarau matihiko i ngā kura ara reo Māori | Māori-medium ICT research report 2016: Digital technologies
This report presents the findings from the 2016 survey on how Māori-medium kura are using digital technologies. The key findings of the survey are described in relation to the key areas of inquiry in the survey: school-wide strategies, access, use, usefulness, impact, barriers, te reo Māori, and communication.
Authors: Hineihaea Murphy and Dee Reid, Haemata Limited.
Published: May 2017

Digital technologies in schools 2016-17
The 20/20 Trust Digital technologies in schools report presents findings and information from the Digital Technologies in Schools survey coordinated by the Trust. The survey objective was to ascertain how New Zealand schools manage access to, and the use of, digital technologies as a medium for curriculum delivery and student learning. It includes results of developments into future-focused learning, school ICT infrastructure, the use of networks, software, teaching applications, internet access and usage, ICT planning and funding, e-learning developments, professional development, and use of social software.
Authors: Mark Johnson, James Maguire, Annita Wood for 20/20 Trust
Published: April 2017

NZTech advance education technology summit: Leading for 21st century learning
This briefing paper provides insights from the NZTech Advance Education Technology Summit, including key observations from the Leaders Forum discussions about achieving digital fluency.
Author: NZ Technology Industry Association
Published: August 2016

The effect of fibre broadband on student learning
About two students at an average-sized primary school will reach the National Standards in reading, writing, and mathematics because of the school’s access to fibre broadband. The study from Motu Economic and Public Policy Research Trust (NZ) uses the fact that schools gained access to UFB at different times to evaluate the effect on academic performance. It is the first research anywhere in the world to specifically evaluate the effect of fibre broadband on educational achievement.
Authors: Arthur Grimes and Wilbur Townsend
Published: 2017

Innovating education and educating for innovation: The power of digital technologies and skills
The available evidence on innovation in education, the impact of digital technologies on teaching and learning, the role of digital skills and the role of educational industries in the process of innovation is discussed in this report. The report argues for smarter policies, involving all stakeholders, for innovation in education.
Author: OECD
Published: 2016

Manaiakalani: The hook from heaven
Improvement in student learning outcomes following five years of one-to-one learning using Google Apps and Hapara teacher dashboard are highlighted in this case-study.
Author: Hapara Inc
Published: 2015

Clever classrooms
There is clear evidence that well-designed primary school classrooms boost children’s learning progress in reading, writing, and maths. Three types of physical characteristic of the classrooms were assessed: Stimulation, Individualisation and Naturalness – the SIN design principles.
Authors: Professor Peter Barrett, Dr Yufan Zhang, Dr Fay Davies, Dr Lucinda Barrett – University of Salford, Manchester, UK
Published: December 2015

Digital Technology – Safe and responsible use in schools
This guide provides general advice for schools about preventing incidents by promoting safe and responsible use of digital technology. It is a companion to the guidelines for the surrender and retention of property searches.
Author: NetSafe for the Ministry of Education
Published: 2015

This report also draws from over 8000 requests for help and incident reports that NetSafe received from individuals, businesses and other organisations in 2014. These provide a unique snapshot of the digital challenges that New Zealanders face, and approaches to combat them. It highlights the realworld
challenges that all Kiwis can experience online regardless of their age, location or even how "digitally savvy" they are.
Author: NetSafe
Published: 2015 

Digital technologies in New Zealand schools 2014 report
Findings from the 2014 Digital Technologies in Schools survey. Findings include: planning with digital technologies, access and use of digital devices, use of technologies in learning, the impact of digital technologies, professional development, and community engagement.
Authors: Research New Zealand, prepared for the 2020 Communications Trust
Published: October 2014 

Disrupting the boundaries of teaching and learning: How digital devices became a resource for transformative change in a time of crisis
Findings from The Pegasus Digital Devices Project, an initiative of the Greater Christchurch School Network (GCSN), in response to the earthquakes of Christchurch in 2010 and 2011. The Pegasus Digital Devices Project saw the integration of 600 digital devices into 11 primary schools from the eastern Pegasus Bay region of Christchurch. The report outlines how the project came about, who was involved, how the devices were integrated into schools, and the learning and change that occurred for teachers, students and the community as a result.
Authors: Louise Taylor, Tara Fagan and Merryn Dunmill (CORE Education) for Ministry of Education
Published: April 2014

3D printers in schools: uses in the curriculum
Twenty one schools were funded by the Department for Education in the United Kingdom to explore the potential for use of 3D printers to enrich teaching across science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and design subjects. In particular, schools were asked to explore innovative ways of using the technology to help teach more complex scientific and mathematical ideas. This report outlines what was learnt from the project.
Author: Department for Education, UK Government Publications 
Published: October 2013

School ICT infrastructure survey
The School ICT Infrastructure Survey provides information about the current state of ICT infrastructure in New Zealand schools, how they are currently using technology, and what they would find valuable in terms of content and services to enhance teaching and learning. The survey was completed by 600 schools across the sector. The survey shows that existing school infrastructure is in a relatively good state. While most schools are embracing digital learning, they are keen to upgrade their internal networks through the School Network Upgrade Project (SNUP) to ensure service quality is retained as technology demands increase.
Authors: Schools Infrastructure Group, Ultra-fast Broadband in Schools, Ministry of Education.
Published: April 2013

Data systems in secondary schools: The state of play
This study examines the data systems that are in place for supporting teachers in building a comprehensive profile of student learning. A data audit protocol was developed by the researchers to analyse the responses from key personnel from secondary schools in the Auckland region in relation to SMS data organisation and use. The results indicated that schools were rich with data but lacked a systematic and coherent approach to school-wide data collection and use. Three implications for practice are suggested. This article is located in Computers in New Zealand Schools: Learning, Teaching, Technology 24 (2). 
Authors: S. E. Irving and  M. Gan
Published: 2012 

Informing one-to-one computing in primary schools: Student use of netbooks
An analysis of key findings from a study conducted in four Year 7 classrooms in which students were provided with netbook computers as an alternative to more expensive laptop computers. Variable access was provided to students including computer to student ratios of one-to-one and one-to-two. Findings indicated that increased access to the netbook computers resulted in increases in computer usage by these students, compared with their minimal use of computers before the study. The article reports that factors contributing to the minimal use of computers included individual teacher agency, a crowded curriculum, and the historical use of computers. Implications for policy and practice are suggested.
Authors: Kevin Larkin and Glenn Finger, Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 
Published: 2011

A literature review focused on Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) and e-learning in the context of Te Reo Māori and Kaupapa Māori education  
The Ministry of Education has identified the need to further explore the use of Virtual Learning Environments particularly in the context of te reo Māori and kaupapa Māori education. This literature review was sought to provide further understanding for the Ministry of Education in this area.
Authors: Sarah-Jane Tiakiwai and Hans Tiakiwai
Published: March 2010

Learning spaces and effective pedagogy: What does our space 'say'?
This document supports school leaders as they facilitate dialogue on the design of learning spaces, both physical and virtual. The focus is on providing an environment that supports using technologies in a collaborative way for learning.
Author: Rochelle Jensen
Published: July 2010 

ICT in schools surveys  
The 2020 ICT in Schools Reports present information on the surveys coordinated by the Trust. They include results of developments into school ICT infrastructure, the use of networks, software, teaching applications, internet access and usage, ICT planning and funding, e-learning developments, professional development, and use of social software. The survey has been carried out every two years since 1993.
Authors: Prepared by Research New Zealand

Video conferencing in distance learning: A New Zealand schools' perspective
This article traces the development of video conferencing in distance learning across the New Zealand secondary school sector. It begins with an overview of the definition and development of distance learning; then traces the technology of video conferencing from its inception to the present day. It goes on to look at the growth of video conferencing, the role and contribution it has made to distance learning in New Zealand schools, then concludes with a brief discussion of possible future directions.
Author: Rachel Roberts
Published: 2009

How can 20th century classrooms be modified to accommodate the needs of 21st century learners?
Principal of Waipahihi School, Helen Malcolm's sabbatical report provides research into learning environments that enable successful 21st century learning. She focused on: what can be done to modify existing classrooms to make them effective 21st century learning environments, how ICT's have been incorporated into learning environments to maximise their use as learning tools and to support current pedagogy, how ICT's have been incorporated across the school - the rationale behind the big picture, and what has been done to increase the teacher's ability in meeting student learning needs.
Author: Helen Malcolm
Published: 2009

Learning spaces
This e-book explores the design of learning spaces in secondary schools. The focus is on planning for the use of technology to ensure learner success. This site also offers case studies including links to examples of innovative learning spaces.
Editor: Diana Oblinger
Published: 2006

Ministry Initiatives

Future-focused learning in connected communities 
This report aims to help inform government planning around 21st century skills and digital competencies. It suggests ten strategic priorities, including the creation of modern learning environments that are vibrant and safe, investment in high-quality content and systems, and development of collaborative networks for teachers and leaders to share ideas. The report covers potential device policies and further professional development for teachers.
Authors: Associate Education Minister Nikki Kaye's 21st Century Learning Reference Group
Published: May 2014

e-Learning research and evaluation
The Ministry of Education commissions a variety of research and evaluation around the impact of e-learning practices in education. Overall the Ministry's research and evaluation of e-learning aims to:

  • assess the impacts of Ministry e-learning initiatives across the education sector to strengthen planning and implementation
  • explore e-learning practices that make a positive difference to learning
  • support educators to make critical and reflective pedagogical decisions about their use of e-learning.

The Ministry of Education has published a number of research reports on e-learning, which are available from the e-Learning publication home page .

Accelerating the progress of priority learners in primary schools, May 2013
This national report presents the findings of ERO’s recent evaluation about the extent to which primary schools were using effective strategies to improve outcomes for priority groups of learners. In this report ‘priority learners’ refers to Māori, Pacific, special needs, and students from low income families, who are not achieving at or above National Standards.
Authors: Education Review Office – Te Tari Arotake Matauranga
Published: May 2013

Statements of intent
This link to the Ministry of Education website lists all the Statements of intent. From here you can access the Ministry of Education’s Statement of Intent 2013 – 2018 which sets out the key elements of how they will contribute to the delivery of Government’s priorities for education.

ICT in schools report 2011: Information and Communications technology in New Zealand Schools 1993-2011
This report, carried out for the 20/20 Communications Trust, outlines several major findings. Students have good access to ICTs at school and principals report that the Internet is having a significant impact on teaching and learning but bandwidth and data caps are constraining usage. Most schools waiting for the roll-out of ultra-fast broadband have indicated they will need professional development for teachers, upgrades to existing technologies, and better technical support.
Authors: Mark Johnson, Joe Hedditch, and Ian Yin from Research New Zealand
Published: December 2011

eFellows research reports  
The e-Learning Fellowship initiative was funded by the Ministry of Education from 2003-2009. Annually, up to ten teachers in early childhood, primary, and secondary are released from the classroom to conduct an eFellowship session with academic support and mentoring, including professional learning workshops for two weeks each term, and participation in an online learning community.

TELA laptops scheme school survey 2013
Results of the TELA Laptops Scheme School Survey for 2013 which was conducted in order to determine whether the current products offered by the TELA Scheme are meeting user needs and to examine the quality of support services schools receive from Telecom Rental.
Authors: Emanuel Kalafatelis, Katrina Magill and Hayley Stirling, Research New Zealand.
Published: July 2014 

Laptops for teachers: An evaluation of the TELA scheme in schools (Years 1 to 3)
Impacts of the Laptops for Teachers Scheme on Years 1 to 3 teachers’ work in the Waikato region.
Authors: Bronwen Cowie, Alister Jones and Ann Harlow, with Mike Forret
Published: July 2010

Laptops for Teachers: An evaluation of the TELA scheme in Auckland schools
Impacts of the Laptops for Teachers Scheme (TELA) on primary schools within the Greater Auckland area.
Authors: Assoc. Prof. Judy Parr and Dr. Lorrae Ward
Published: June 2010

Laptops for teachers: An evaluation of the TELA scheme in schools (Years 4 to 6)
Impacts of the Laptops for Teachers Scheme on Years 4 to 6 teachers’ work over a period of three years (2004-2006), and emerging changes in laptop use.
Authors: Bronwen Cowie, Alister Jones, and Ann Harlow with Mike Forret, Clive McGee, and Thelma Miller
Published: May 2010

Laptops for Teachers: An evaluation of the TELA scheme in Otago schools
Impacts of the Laptops for Teachers Scheme (TELA) on primary schools within the Otago region.
Authors: Keryn Pratt, Kwok-Wing Lai and Ann Trewern with Fiona Concannon and Harriet Sutton
Published: May 2010

Outcomes for teachers and students in the ICT PD School Clusters Programme 2005-2007 – A national overview
The effectiveness of the 2005-2007 Information and Communication Technologies Professional Development (ICT PD) School Clusters programmes and supplements previous evaluations of the first five ICT PD programmes is evaluated. This is part of an ongoing evaluation of the ICT PD teacher professional development initiative, which has been implemented in New Zealand since 1999.
Author: Vince Ham
Published: July 2009

TELA: Laptops for teachers evaluation – Final report Years 7 & 8
Impacts of the Laptops for Teachers Scheme on Years 7 to 8 teachers’ work over a period of three years (2004-2006) and to record emerging changes in laptop use.
Authors: Bronwen Cowie, Alister Jones & Ann Harlow with Mike Forret, Clive McGee & Thelma Miller
Published: June 2008

TELA: Laptops for Teachers Evaluation – Final report Years 9-13
Impacts of the Laptops for Teachers Scheme on Years 9 to 13 teachers’ work over a period of four years (2003-2006) and to record emerging changes in laptop use.
Authors: Bronwen Cowie, Alister Jones, Ann Harlow, Clive McGee, Bev Cooper, Mike Forret, Thelma Miller, and Ben Gardiner
Published: June 2008

School ICT Network Infrastructure Upgrade Project: Evaluation of early impacts
A review of the early impacts of the Network Infrastructure Upgrade Project, which provides small schools with either an upgrade to an outdated computer network, or installs a new network if none exists. Fifty schools were selected to participate in this evaluation where either the principal or their representative was interviewed.
Authors: L. Ward, B. Weston and T. Bowker
Published: March 2007

Māori medium

Ngā hangarau matihiko i ngā kura ara reo Māori | Māori-medium ICT research report 2016: Digital technologies
This report presents the findings from the 2016 survey on how Māori-medium kura are using digital technologies. The key findings of the survey are described in relation to the key areas of inquiry in the survey: school-wide strategies, access, use, usefulness, impact, barriers, te reo Māori, and communication.
Authors: Hineihaea Murphy and Dee Reid, Haemata Limited.
Published: May 2017

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