Teaching and learning with 1:1 devices involves every student having access to a digital device that can enhance and transform their learning.
Moving towards 1:1 devices requires a commitment from the whole school community, including families and whānau. A vital part of the process is ensuring that staff, students, and whānau have a shared understanding about the benefits of 1:1 devices.
The primary goal of implementing 1:1 devices is improved learner outcomes. The benefits of 1:1 devices include:
These factors lead to increased student engagement, motivation, independence, task completion, and efficiency.
Principal Melissa Bell describes St Hilda's school vision and how it is supported and enabled by technology. Enabling students to learn anywhere at anytime and to work collaboratively both locally and globally improves learner outcomes. Involving parents in students’ learning has also been an important factor.
The use of 1:1 devices needs to align with your school’s vision and strategic goals, and it’s important to have an e-learning strategy in place before you start planning your 1:1 devices strategy.
An e-learning strategy needs to be in place before you start planning your 1:1 devices strategy.
Once your e-learning strategy is understood and supported by the school community, you’re ready to start planning for 1:1 devices.
1:1 programmes only succeed if teachers are willing and able to change their practice. To do this, teachers need to understand the why of 1:1 devices as well as how to use them effectively.
In this video, educational consultant, Julia Atkin discusses the process of leading e-learning in a school. She explains the importance of creating a shared vision, that reflects the competencies students need to develop, and the importance of identifying the learning needs of staff to ensure the vision can be realised. Although the focus of the video is on e-learning in a more general sense, the content is entirely applicable to the process of implementing 1:1 devices.
The following questions support teachers to explore ways that 1:1 devices can develop confident, capable, lifelong learners:
Wairakei School principal Shane Buckner discusses why the school adopted a BYOD approach to enable their children to become connected, capable learners, using 1:1 devices to personalise learning.
The principal of Mahurangi Christian School talks about the shift from a teacher-centred approach to a student-centred approach supported by 1:1 iPads.
Before introducing 1:1 devices, parents and caregivers need multiple opportunities to contribute, raise questions, and build their understanding of how 1:1 devices will be used at school and at home.
Holy Cross School is very multicultural community. Kathy Moy-Low explains how the staff have consulted with, and engaged, the parent community in e-learning. One of their initiatives is after school parent technology sessions, which are run once a month. In this video clip, parents explain how their own confidence with technology has grown and their engagement with their children’s learning has increased.
Initial engagements with parents and whānau may include discussions about:
When initial consultation is completed and analysed, plan how you will:
Parents from Wairakei School describe the benefits of their children being in a BYOD class including increased motivation, improvements to learning, and greater independence. Parents value being able to better support their children and see their progress more readily.
Providing answers to frequently asked questions (FAQs) can ease the transition to 1:1 devices. These can be distributed to the school community and made available on the school website. Common questions are around:
Michael Williams, principal of Pakuranga College, shares the importance of being able to articulate why you are using digital devices, and how they improve teaching and learning. He also explains the usefulness of a staged approach to 1:1 devices, learning from pilot groups while working towards school-wide implementation.
Introducing 1:1 devices requires extensive planning, communication, and ongoing evaluation. It’s important to involve students, teachers, and the wider school community throughout the process, responding to people's needs at each stage.
Some schools implementing 1:1 devices choose to work together to support each other and share resources.
This BYOD and 1:1 preparedness checklist provides an overview of planning and implementation steps related to:
Using 1:1 devices opens up worlds of possibilities in terms of new learning experiences, but it also presents challenges in terms of cyber-safety and digital citizenship. Policies and acceptable use agreements, along with conversations about cyber-safety, help students to develop the strategies and awareness they need to keep themselves and others safe in online spaces.
The planning stage of creating a safe online learning environment involves:
Sean Lyons, Development Manager from NetSafe, discusses the concept of digital citizenship and how it fits into the National Curriculum. He explains that the focus of cyber-safety has expanded beyond policies and procedures to include discussion, action, and teachable moments in the classroom. Students need to build skills and knowledge to effectively manage cyber challenges themselves to become confident and successful digital citizens.
An acceptable use policy (AUP) is a set of rules and agreements that guide and govern how devices and the internet are used at school, with a focus on digital citizenship, cyber-safety, and privacy. AUPs support students to be aware of their rights, responsibilities, and privileges. This is particularly important when students have internet access that isn't managed or filtered by the school, for example, 3G/4G cellular internet connections and free local wifi networks. Co-constructing AUPs with students and the wider school community is a great way to bring everyone on board with how to participate in online spaces safely.
AUPs need to include processes for addressing inappropriate use of devices or the internet. The Ministry of Education’s digital technology guide for schools explains teachers’ legal rights when dealing with digital devices. It also provides general guidance about the best ways to manage digital devices and create a safe school environment.
The NetSafe Kit for Schools is a comprehensive set of tools and resources that help schools and educators create and manage a safe online environment. All of the resources in the kit are free for schools.
Teacher expertise, confidence, and enthusiasm all play an important role in the successful use of 1:1 devices. With rapid technological changes and an ever-developing range of resources and applications, teachers need many and varied opportunities to develop their e-learning capabilities.
e-Learning coordinator, Allistair Williamson, explains the processes a school used to support the successful use of BYOD in the classroom, including professional development of staff.
Teachers can receive professional development through:
The e-Learning Planning Framework (eLPF) helps teachers to reflect on, and evaluate, their e-learning capabilities. The eLPF supports regular self-review and subsequent improvement of e-learning skills and knowledge in ways that reflect our bicultural heritage within a multicultural context.
The framework provides schools and teachers with:
Teaching as inquiry is an approach to teaching that involves teachers critically analysing and adapting their teaching practices in order to improve learner outcomes.
Communities of inquiry provide a framework for teachers to:
It can be helpful for each group to include a technology mentor. Students can also be part of communities of inquiry.
Deputy principal, Vicki Trainor, explains why teacher inquiry was a useful framework for teachers deepening their understanding of, and confidence with, e-learning tools. Through the inquiry process teachers moved from an initial focus on student engagement to a more critical evaluation of student outcomes.
The Virtual Learning Network (VLN) is an online professional learning community for New Zealand teachers and school leaders to discuss and share their practice. The Enabling e-Learning community has several sub-groups that support teachers to use digital devices to enhance learning. Useful groups include:
Like any teaching and learning programme, the success of 1:1 device programmes need to be regularly evaluated.
Key questions include:
The Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition (SAMR) model is a framework that teachers can use to assess and evaluate how they are using 1:1 devices and specific software applications in their classrooms.
Developed by Dr. Ruben Puentedura, the model shows a progression that adopters of educational technology often follow as they progress through different stages of teaching and learning with technology.
As teachers move along the continuum, computer technology becomes more important in the classroom but at the same time becomes more invisibly woven into the demands of good teaching and learning.
Ben Britton, lead teacher ICT at Wellington High School, discusses how teachers use the SAMR model to evaluate and plan for effective use of technologies in the classroom. He explains the process of trial and error that they went through and how they experimented with the SAMR model to find what worked best for them.
Teacher inquiry – SAMR provides more information and examples of ways that teachers are using the SAMR-model.
Wairakei School trialed BYOD with a Year 5/6 class in 2014. The trial was focused on developing a Universal Design for Learning (UDL) approach supported by digital technologies. By creating an inclusive classroom environment with personalised learning to cater for all students, including those with special learning needs and ensuring the learning programme was successful for them, the needs of all students were met.
Prior to beginning the trial e-learning leader, Kate Friedwald and principal, Shane Buckner:
Wairakei School principal, Shane Buckner discusses why the school adopted a BYOD approach to enable their children to become connected, capable learners, using one-to-one devices to personalise learning.
Wairakei School's process for setting up and carrying out the trial is described in this series of videos,
Evidence gathered at the conclusion of the trial showed, all the students felt that:
Planning and resourcing for using technologies
This enabling e-learning webpage provides discussion starters, practical steps, and school stories that can be used in conjunction with the e-Learning Planning Framework to help you evaluate existing school systems and plan for successful implementation of 1:1 devices.
Use this checklist to reflect on your school’s readiness for implementing Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) or 1:1 devices owned by either learners or school.
This guide offers schools starting points and a brief roadmap to support planning for, and managing, a 1:1 digital programme.
This section contains the e-Learning Planning Framework (eLPF) along with supporting information and resources.
This webinar explores how to approach Bring Your Own Device (BYOD). Topics covered include: device choices, community involvement, and device management. The webinar also includes a short panel discussion with representatives from the Ministry and N4L and presentations from Churton Park School (Wellington) and Mount Aspiring College (Wanaka).
A series of videos from teachers and educators explaining different aspects of introducing BYOD into schools.
This section provides advice on how to choose which device(s) students will use, approaches to ensuring every student has access to a device, and software and licensing considerations. Information on funding has been woven throughout each section. Note that funding of 1:1 devices needs to include ongoing costs such as insurance and repair as well as the cost of the devices themselves.
Choosing which device(s) students will be using involves having a clear idea about how they will be used by teachers and students, including how this differs across year groups and subject areas.
As you investigate devices and device management, consider:
Deputy principal, Dominic Killalea, discusses why Wellington High School encouraged students to bring the device they use at home to school. The school has a minimum set of specifications for purchasing a device, which are updated annually.
Identify the pros and cons of different devices by:
Staff at St Hilda's Collegiate explain the process they went through to select the 1:1 device they are currently using. This involved:
Some schools choose to lease or purchase devices that can be used by all learners and teachers. Ideally, students will be able to take their allocated device home to promote learning beyond the classroom.
Advantages of school-provided devices include:
Some disadvantages are:
Initial capital investment may be able to be funded from savings, charitable grants, community fundraising, parent contributions, partnerships, or top-up grants under your school property plan.
Schools can save time, effort, and money by making use of all-of-government procurement processes. The government uses the power of collective purchasing to secure good deals.
Schools can purchase desktops, laptops, and tablets from a choice of six suppliers that offer Windows, Android, and Apple-based solutions. Nominated Third Party Agents can purchase and service equipment on your behalf.
Schools can also purchase mobile, voice and data services, and print devices, with estimated savings of 15–40%.
Working with other schools to collectively purchase goods and services can save you time, money, and duplication of effort. Purchasing as a group can increase your bargaining power and standardise the quality of goods and services. You can also share the procurement workload.
For guidance, examples, and templates see collective purchasing .
The Bundled Services Tool helps schools and early learning providers to form a group to work together across administration and operational tasks. The money saved by sharing resources can help to cover the costs of hardware or other IT-related expenses.
This VLN discussion explores the benefits of schools leasing or buying computers.
Some schools ask students to bring their own digital device (BYOD). The two options are:
Some schools partner with parents to purchase specified devices using a payment plan.
Not all families can afford to buy a digital device for their child. The Education Act 1989 gives all students in Aotearoa New Zealand the right to a free education. This means that students can’t be denied access to learning opportunities because they do not have the recommended equipment. (This 2018 Ministry of Education bulletin provides more information).
Equity issues can be addressed by schools providing a number of devices for students to use for the day, or by setting up a lease-to-own arrangement for students. For example, families within the Manaiakalani Schools (a community of collaborating schools) can choose to pay $3.50 per week over three years to purchase the device their child is using. See Partners and supporters for information on the organisations partnering with this cluster.
Some advantages of student-provided devices are:
Some disadvantages are:
Some school communities are working in partnerships that use a separate legal entity, such as a trust, to fund or lease digital devices and online learning resources. The partnership may source funding and bulk-buying discounts to provide families with more affordable devices and support. Parents can contribute an ongoing sum to pay for the device and/or internet connection at home.
Under the Crown Entities Act and Education Act, school boards can only enter into certain types of securities. The two main types of securities are:
In general terms, a debt security is a right to be paid money that has been lent to someone else. Schools can only acquire debt securities through other approved New Zealand financial institutions and public securities. This means that schools cannot lend money to the school community or establish a school-run device hire purchase scheme.
Some advantages of community partnership funding are:
Some disadvantages are:
Schools use a range of learning management systems, student management systems, e-portfolios, school portals, blogging, and social media tools. These tools:
Browser and cloud-based applications provide universal access and more equitable user experience. Many vendors, including Apple, Google, and Microsoft, provide free cloud-based applications and storage for education. Software for student devices and student device access to school servers is available under the Ministry of Education’s agreement with Microsoft.
Mobile device management (MDM) software can be used to help manage iBook and app deployment, software licensing and updating, device settings and network access. You may find that as the number of student devices accessing your school network grows beyond 20–50, the time and complexity of managing the devices warrants an MDM solution. While some MDM providers offer their software to schools at no cost, many charge a "per user" license fee.
The applications schools choose for devices need to be based on the teaching and learning experiences that take place in the classroom. Volume purchasing programmes can provide substantial discounts for buying in bulk. Consider the features of "free" applications versus paid applications, including any data you have to provide when using free apps.
Successful 1:1 device programmes require sustained investment that goes beyond the devices alone. Funding may be needed for:
There can also be a considerable investment of time.
Ongoing operational costs could be spread across the budget, in areas such as:
The IT infrastructure that supports the use of digital devices at school is just as important as the devices students will be using.
Your school’s internal network and internet connection will impact on:
1:1 digital device programmes need a wireless network that provides adequate coverage, speed, and capacity for high concentrations of devices in small areas that are accessing digital resources simultaneously.
Guide to reviewing your school’s technical infrastructure – provides information to help you identify the strengths and weaknesses of your existing ICT infrastructure.
Aspects of IT infrastructure that need to be considered include:
Dominic Killalea, deputy principal at Wellington High School, outlines key considerations when setting up the infrastructure needed to support reliable access and connectivity.
Systems manager, Alistair Montgomery describes ways students at St Hilda’s Collegiate School are supported to manage the limited battery life of some devices.
The cloud refers to a service, infrastructure, or application that is hosted on a third-party virtual machine or data centre that can be accessed via the internet. By storing data in the cloud or using cloud-based applications, you can decrease hardware and software demands because you no longer need large servers to store data. Using cloud based applications such as Google Apps and storing data in the cloud means students and teachers have anywhere, anytime access to content via the internet.
Finding safe and secure ways to store digital devices can be challenging, especially when space is already an issue.
Groups of teachers share how they manage device storage in these VLN discussions.
Schools with ultra-fast broadband can share their internet with the local community, making a digital hub.
Systems manager, Alistair Montgomerie, describes the infrastructure set up at St Hildas to enable all students and staff to use the Internet as part of their 1-1 laptops programme.
Systems manager, Alistair Montgomery describes St Hilda's management to ensure students can keep working on their laptops all day, relying on the battery.
St Hilda's Collegiate teacher, Donna Smith describes how the 1-1 laptop programme, along with using e-portfolios, gives her flexibility to be more responsive to the learning needs of the students, and enhances her ability to support student learning.
St Hilda's College staff explain the process they went through to select MacBook Pros as the 1-1 device they are currently using.
Principal Melissa Bell and the e-learning leaders at St Hilda's Collegiate describe the professional development they have in place to support teachers with teaching and learning.
Principal Melissa Bell describes St Hilda's school vision and how it is supported and enabled by technology.
Hingaia Penninsula School principal, Jane Danielson shares planning their technological infrastructure.
Mark Quigley, Deputy Principal, and Tony Zaloum, Director ICT Projects, explain their vision for e-learning as they embark on implementing BYOD for Year 9 students at Orewa College.
Dr. David Parsons, Associate Professor Information Technology at Massey University explains the digital divide is not only about access but about how devices are used.
Tyler, a year 6 student with dyspraxia, uses a netbook to help him write creatively instead of being inhibited by the speed of his handwriting or his ability to form letters.
Using a netbook, Google docs, and blogging has increased engagement and improved learning outcomes for student Kieren.
Implementing 1-1 netbooks has enabled personalised learning to meet the needs of all students in the senior classes at Parkvale school and provided opportunities for success.
Teacher and e-learning leader, Kate Friedwald explains the information provided for parents at Wairakei School to introduce a BYOD trial for Year 5/6 students in 2014.
Kate Friedwald describes step-by-step the process she went through from researching BYOD to setting up a classroom learning programme using BYOD at Wairakei School.
Principal, Shane Buckner and e-learning leader, Kate Friedwald, talk about the systems and setup they have at Wairakei School to successfully use 1-1 devices.
Parents from Wairakei School describe the benefits that being in a BYOD class has had for their children.
e-Learning co-ordinator, Allistair Williamson explains key steps for implementing BYOD at Pakuranga College.
Michael Williams, principal Pakuranga College, discusses some of the key questions they worked through when developing their digital strategy.
Ben Britton, lead teacher ICT at Wellington High School, discusses how they use the SAMR model to evaluate plan for effective use of technologies in the classroom.
Dominic Killalea, Deputy Principal at Wellington High School, discusses some key infrastructure considerations to ensure good connectivity across your school.
Dominic Killalea, Deputy Principal at Wellington High School, discusses their key considerations for selecting devices for students.
Dominic Killalea, Deputy Principal at Wellington High School, discusses the importance of making time for professional learning.
Lead ICT teacher, Ben Britton and students at Wellington High School describe how 1:1 devices have enabled student agency.
Wellington High School teacher, Ben Britton describes the differences and opportunities to planning and teaching as a result of using online resources and students bringing their own devices.
Pakuranga College principal Michael Williams explains, learning has become more collaborative and students are more engaged.
Students from Pakuranga College, along with their deputy principal, Billy Merchant, share how using their digital devices to access online resources supports their learning.
The principal and deputy principal of Pakuranga College talk about planning for successful implementation of BYOD across the school.
Pakuranga College deputy principal, Billy Merchant explains their ongoing community consultation process, which includes how and why students devices, and digital citizenship.
Michael Williams and Billy Merchant from Pakuranga College, explain their change in pedagogy from telling students which device to purchase to being "device agnostic".
Wellington High School Principal, Dominic Killalea explains the pedagogy behind their BYOD approach which supports lifelong learning.
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Edutopia provides information and resources on: ways to prepare, best practices, curriculum, and management in one-device-per-student learning environments.
School Transformation Survey
Access a free online survey that measures educators’ and leaders' perceptions on the current state of innovative teaching practices in their school or class. The surveys can be used to measure progress by establishing a baseline of your school's current teaching practices using the initial survey results, and then conducting subsequent research every year thereafter to assess how those practices have evolved. Developed from Innovative Teaching and Learning (ITL), sponsored by Microsoft.
School Transformation Toolkit
A collection of strategies and practical resources to support school leaders as they engage in transforming leading and learning at their site. The School Transformation Toolkit is divided into three key sections: programs, resources, and learning.
EDtalks – BYOD
Video clips featuring educational experts sharing different aspects of BYOD from the EDtalks website.
This guide, created 2012 for the Ministry of Education in Alberta, examines the use of BYOD models in schools. It looks at the potential opportunities and benefits, as well as the considerations, risks and implications that arise when schools allow students and staff to use personally owned devices in the classroom and school environments. Strategies, tips and techniques are included to address the considerations and manage the risks. This document is sourced from the Alberta Education website.
Ten safe bets for school IT
Good strategic planning that sees IT decisions as a core part of supporting students achieve the desired learning outcomes, will always produce the best results. This CORE Education blog post identifies 10 key technical issues for schools to consider when planning to develop their school network.
Thinking about BYOD
A blog post from Derek Wenmoth providing a framework for devices and their purpose. He discusses specified and non-specified devices related to the purpose of the devices in learning.
The BYOD debate – pros and cons
Schools should adopt policies allowing students to bring in and use their own computing devices. The pros and cons of this statement are recorded on the Education Technology for School Leaders site.
(2016) Innovating education and educating for innovation: The power of digital technologies and skills
This OECD report covers the available evidence on innovation in education, the impact of digital technologies on teaching and learning, and the role of digital skills and the education industries in the process of innovation, using data from OECD surveys.
(2016) 1-to-1 Laptop Initiatives Boost Student Scores, Study Finds
An Education week article summarising a meta-analysis of 1-to-1 computing programs conducted by Michigan State University researchers. A key finding was, 1-to-1 laptop programs had a statistically significant positive impact on student test scores in English/language arts, writing, math, and science.
(2015) Students, computers and learning: Making the connection
This OECD report discusses differences in access to, and use of, ICTs related to students’ socio-economic status, gender, geographic location, and the school a child attends. The report highlights the importance of bolstering students’ ability to navigate through digital texts. It also examines the relationship among computer access in schools, computer use in classrooms, and performance in the PISA assessment. All students first need to be equipped with basic literacy and numeracy skills so that they can participate fully in the connected, digitised 21st century societies.
(2012) Bridging digital divides in the learning process: Challenges and implications of integrating ICTs
This paper investigates an initiative by a New Zealand School to integrate one-to-one ICTs into the learning process, called "bring your own device" (BYOD).
(2012) An investigation into how growing accessibility and interactivity in ICT is being managed in schools both in New Zealand and overseas
A sabbatical report by Dominic Killalea, Deputy Principal, Wellington High School; accessed from the Educational Leaders website.
(2011) ICT for teaching and ICT for learning: They are not the same
Developments in technology, and particularly the rise in smart phones and tablet-based technologies such as the iPad, have magnified the difference between ICT for teaching and ICT for learning. Schools need to fully understand the difference between the two and how this will impact both their ICT infrastructure, and also how they may wish to provision the school with devices. From Computers in New Zealand schools Vol 23, No2, 2011
(2010) 1-1 in Education: Current practice, international comparative research evidence and policy implications
This OECD Education working paper by Oscar Valiente summarises evidence about 1:1 initiatives in education, drawing on official websites, program evaluations, and academic meta-reviews. Information is provided about the policy expectations, program designs, and challenges for an effective implementation of 1:1 initiatives in education.
(2010) One‐to‐one computing programs only as effective as their teachers
This eSchool News article by Meris Stansbury reviews a compilation of four new studies of one-to-one computing projects in K-12 schools. Several factors are identified as key to the projects' success, including adequate planning, stakeholder buy-in, and strong school or district leadership. The researchers say the most important factor of all is the teaching practices of instructors, suggesting school laptop programs are only as effective as the teachers who apply them.
(2009) School leadership and student outcomes: Identifying what works and why best evidence synthesis
The big finding of the BES is that when school leaders promote and/or participate in effective teacher professional learning, this has twice the impact on student outcomes across a school than any other leadership activity. New Zealand principals spend less time on those activities that make the most difference than many of their international peers. Author(s): Viviane Robinson, Margie Hohepa, Claire Lloyd (The University of Auckland).
Browse all BES cases
A complete list of all 32 cases from across the Best Evidence Synthesis (BES) publications on Education Counts. The BES bring together research evidence about what works for diverse (all) learners in education.
For more research go to the Research and readings section of Enabling e-Learning.
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