The way in which digital devices are set up (deployed), customised, and managed is crucial to ensure they provide the experience that students and staff need in a cost-effective, secure, and efficient way. This page outlines how schools and kura should be planning to deploy, customise, and manage the devices they own or lease as well as the devices that staff or students might want to bring and use.
For the purpose of this guide:
Device – any kind of computer, laptop, tablet, smartphone, or hybrid.
Deployment – moving a device from its current state to a desired state that is ready to be customised. Deployment usually involves resetting or reloading the operating system so it is clean of any previous customisations.
Customisation – making a device ready to be used such as by configuring wifi or printer settings, installing apps/software, naming the device, setting desktop or screensaver images, or enforcing technical policies.
Management – the ongoing intervention needed to maintain a device such as tracking it, providing or checking security updates, or adding and removing apps/software.
Until relatively recently, the majority of digital devices in schools were desktop computers which tended to be deployed, customised, and managed on a cabled network using a server. However, this has changed significantly through a number of developments:
Fast, ubiquitous wifi and internet connectivity has enabled devices to be mobile and wifi-only. This means the devices themselves can be anywhere and they can be managed from anywhere: there is no reason to be restricted to a particular physical location.
A move towards ongoing, more regular updates to software and operating systems every few months rather than on a three to five year refresh cycle.
A greater variety of device types and operating systems that schools want to deploy and manage: Microsoft Windows, Apple Macs, iPads, Chromebooks, Android tablets, Linux, and others.
The expectation that people should be able to have a more configurable and personal user-experience on any device and at any location, rather than a generic or technically-determined one.
The desire for devices to be available for use at all times rather than having to be out of action while being reconfigured.
People wanting to get the benefit of new functionality, apps, or updates as soon as they are available instead of having to wait for months or even years for them to be made available through technical support.
Schools seeking greater cost-effectiveness by moving away from having to procure and manage on-premise servers towards using cloud-based services on monthly subscriptions or no-cost basis.
These days, devices have tended to become more personal such that deployment, customisation, and management can be done by the owner of the device via a series of set-up prompts and customisations such as:
For a large number of devices, whilst it might be possible to undertake these kinds of steps manually one-by-one for each device, it is not generally recommended to do so because it:
Sometimes, though, such a hands-on, manual approach to deployment, customisation, and ongoing management can make sense, especially if:
Ordinarily, automating the deployment, customisation, and ongoing management of devices will provide a more consistent, secure, and cost-effective outcome when there are more than approximately ten devices involved.
Automation used to only be possible using a local server but now there are many cloud-based Mobile Device Management (MDM) systems that can be used. We recommend that schools consider one or more MDM systems to help with the deployment, customisation, and ongoing management of their devices. Microsoft, Google, and Apple all support and recommend such a cloud-based MDM approach for their operating systems as outlined in the appendix.
Mobile device management systems typically offer the following features and benefits. Each MDM will vary, though, in the features they have available and how they work, so it will be essential to check them out carefully before making a decision about what to use.
Microsoft and Apple have both opened their operating systems to being managed by third party MDMs whereas Google’s devices can only be managed by the Google Admin Console using the Chrome Education License.
Using the same MDM system to manage both your Apple and Microsoft devices should be considered as this will reduce the number of tools that need to be learnt, accessed, and paid for.
MDMs are typically purchased on a monthly subscription basis, although some are at no cost, including options available in the Ministry’s Microsoft Schools Agreement. The cost of the MDM should be considered alongside the alternative (if it exists) of purchasing and running a server and software to manage the devices at your school. Simplifying the management of devices with MDMs should lead to cost-savings through reduced technical support time.
Configuring and managing an MDM is technically involved. You should work with a technical support company to give you assistance with the initial configuration. Once set-up, using the MDM should be easy enough with some training and familiarisation.
Using the capabilities of the MDM to proactively manage devices requires somebody to be responsible for the monitoring of the information that the MDM provides; installing an MDM, then having nobody responsible to monitor it would be a waste of time and money. The monitoring could be done by a school support staff member or a technical support provider.
School-owned devices should be enrolled in an MDM given the benefits outlined above.
There are also advantages to using an MDM for TELA+ digital devices – in particular the ability to confirm whether the devices are running the latest security updates. However, the advantages may not be considered to be worth the cost of the MDM and it’s related support costs.
TELA+ can support schools in using Apple’s Device Enrolment Programme and Microsoft’s AutoPilot which allow a device to be automatically enrolled in the school’s MDM before it ships to the school. Google’s Chrome Education License is available at no cost through the Google School’s Agreement.
Careful consideration is needed to determine whether students’ devices should be enrolled and managed by an MDM. Some factors to explore include:
Cost:benefit ratio: is the financial outlay of the MDM worth the benefits of having student devices managed?
Demarcation: by enrolling a device in a MDM, the school has some controls over that device. The school may not want to have this increased responsibility.
Making the MDM optional for students and pointing out the advantages of using it may be a suitable approach.
As MDMs are managing settings that have been enabled on the operating system, they tend to be differentiated on price and their user interface rather than on what settings they are capable of configuring. This means there is little risk of a school being locked in to a particular MDM solution with a proprietary configuration.
You should expect a similar amount of work to move from one MDM to another as was involved in setting up your original MDM.
Talk to other schools and your technical support provider to ask for recommendations.
There are many MDM options on the market. Our recommendation is to consider a product that is proven to work well in schools in New Zealand, and that offers features and support most relevant for you at the right price.
The following outlines the suggested approaches for the most common types of devices in New Zealand schools.
The four common ways in which devices are deployed are outlined below in order from least recommend to most recommended:
In the past, a common way to deploy devices was to set up a master device with the settings and configuration that was required then to capture this as an "image" which is used to deploy to other similar devices. This method worked well with consistent hardware on a fast, wired network but nowadays does not provide the agility that is demanded with a school typically having a wide variety of devices. Also, for many types of operating system the imaging approach is not technically possible.
Pushing a new operating system to a device is possible in some cases but typically requires a high level of technical expertise to achieve. It is also likely that pushing an operating system over wifi is slow and troublesome so using USB sticks or a wired network (if devices have an ethernet port) may be necessary.
Many types of device can be used out of the box or reset back to their original operating system. Then, using a Mobile Device Manager or other system to automate the deployment process means the devices can be provisioned with minimal hands-on time.
Some operating systems allow for the device’s serial number to be registered with the manufacturer as belonging to a particular school. Once the device is connected to the internet, a Mobile Device Management system recognises it and applies the school’s apps/software/updates/scripts/settings accordingly. This approach is the most hands-off of all, with the end-user being able to use the device straight from the box once it has been connected to the internet.
Devices running Microsoft Windows have traditionally been deployed and managed by a server at school. However, once they are running Windows 10 Pro, Education or Enterprise, Windows devices can now be managed by a MDM, albeit with a more limited toolset than the on-premise server solution can provide. Using a MDM to manage Windows 10 devices is much simpler than setting up and maintaining Windows servers.
The cloud-based Microsoft Azure platform holds the school’s user accounts and information about the Windows devices enrolled. Users should have accounts in Azure Active Directory (AAD) so they can have their settings and files synced when they log in to different devices. Joining devices to the Azure AD will enable your users to log in to your Windows devices using their school user accounts.
Schools should all now be deploying Windows 10 to devices and running the Education, Pro, or Enterprise edition on them so that they can be joined to the Azure AD and get the benefit of the full MDM feature set that Microsoft enables MDM systems to access. However, it is also possible for a Windows device to be managed by a MDM just by being registered with the Azure AD. This means BYOD devices and those running Windows 10 Home edition can also be provided with some more limited management capabilities.
Imaging – This is possible but not recommended as maintaining and updating the image is too hard.
OS deployment – Devices that ship with Windows 10 Home edition will need to be upgraded to Windows 10 Education, Professional or Enterprise edition by reinstalling the operating system. Similarly, devices running previous versions of Windows should also have a new operating system installed. This can be done by using a local USB drive or across the network using a Network Attached Storage (NAS) device if wired ethernet ports are available. Technical support is likely to be required to do this.
Resetting – Windows 10 devices can be easily reset with a fresh installation of Windows 10 from the Settings menu.
Device Enrolment – Windows Autopilot can be used to ensure a device gets automatically set-up for a particular user out of the box.
Microsoft enables any MDM provider to manage its Windows operating system. It also has its own MDM, Intune. There are two versions of Intune as outlined in this blog post – When To Use Intune For Education vs Full Intune Standalone . The Intune for Education product is provided by Microsoft at no cost to all schools globally. Full Intune Standalone is provided at no cost to New Zealand state and state integrated schools as part of the Microsoft Schools Agreement. Intune is likely to provide a superior feature-set and compatibility than a third-party MDM.
In the past, MacOS devices have typically been either unboxed and left unmanaged, or re-imaged using utilities such as DeployStudio, Casper, and Munki and managed using Apple Server, third-party tools like JAMF Casper, or Windows Active Directory.
Imaging – For the current Mac operating system, Macs can have their OS installed but cannot be imaged to include a full software set and configuration.
OS deployment – This can be done by using a local USB drive or across the network using a Network Attached Storage (NAS) device. Technical support is likely to be required to do this.
Resetting – Macs can easily be reset using the "restore" process.
Device Enrolment – Macs can be automatically enrolled in an MDM using the Device Enrollment Programme (DEP).
Apple enables any MDM provider to manage devices running its MacOS operating system. It also has its own MDM, Profile Manager, but this is not recommended to be used for anything other than testing purposes. There are many third party MDM options to manage Macs.
iPads were initially difficult to manage as multi-user devices as they were designed as a single-user device. However, Apple now has well-developed solutions for them to be deployed and managed effectively.
Imaging – IOS devices cannot be imaged.
OS deployment – In extreme cases it is possible to re-deploy the IOS using iTunes but this is uncommon.
Resetting – IOS devices can easily be reset from the settings menu.
Device enrolment – iPads can be automatically enrolled in an MDM using the Device Enrollment Programme (DEP).
Apple enables any MDM provider to manage devices running its IOS operating system. It also has its own MDM, Profile Manager, but this is not recommended to be used for anything other than testing purposes. There are many third party MDM options to manage iPads.
We recommend using DEP and an MDM to manage Apple IOS devices.
The Google Admin Console is the centralised point of management for Chrome devices. This requires a Chrome Education License to be allocated to each Chromebook. Without the license, Chromebooks can still be logged in by users as long as they have a personal or school-managed Google account.
Imaging – Chrome devices cannot be imaged.
OS deployment – In extreme cases it is possible to re-deploy the Chrome OS through "Powerwashing" but this is uncommon.
Resetting – Chrome devices can easily be reset and this is the most common way to re-deploy them.
Device enrolment – Chrome devices can be enrolled automatically into the Google Admin Console if a Chrome Education License is purchased.
Google only enables third-party MDMs to access basic information about Chrome devices. It is only possible to apply a configuration to a Chrome device through the Google Admin Console.
By deploying the Chrome Education Licence, funded by the Ministry, the ability to control, administer, and set policies greatly reduces the amount of effort to manage Chrome devices. The license is specific to the model of Chromebook purchased, but not to the actual device itself. While Chromebooks are very usable without deploying the Chome Education License, we recommend that the reduction in time and effort required to manage the devices, along with the features and benefits that the license enables, makes the additional time to enrol devices and configure the settings worthwhile.
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